- for the entire joint length of the pipe previously marked on the outer surface (fig. 6) - for the entire depth of the socket as far as the internal shoulder (fig.7) 6) Fully insert the pipe into the fitting immediately and without any rotation. Only after this operation will it be possible to slightly rotate both ends (max. 1/4 of a turn ... Pipe Thread Fittings A thread sealant should always be used when assembling tapered threads . SWAK™ anaerobic pipe thread sealant, PTFE-Free pipe thread sealant, and Swagelok PTFE Tape are available . For more information, see the Swagelok Leak Detectors, Lubricants, and Sealants catalog, MS-01-91. each standard length of pipe is tested up to 400 psi for pressure Class 165; 600 psi for pressure Class 235; 800 psi for pressure Class 305 for a minimum of 5 seconds.
One of the most popular books in the oil and gas field "GPSA Engineering Databook", 11th edition, SI units provides a chart (Fig 17-4) in Section 17, "Fluid Flow & Piping" for the equivalent lengths of the commonly used fittings and valves as a function of the resistance coefficient and the nominal pipe diameter. Concentric & Eccentric Reducers – Standard Weight (Continued) Nominal Pipe Size Length (H) Approximate Weight (in Pounds) 16 X 6 14 67.4 Equivalent Length: Equivalent length of a pipe fitting is defined as the frictional losses caused due to the pipe fitting that is equivalent to frictional losses caused by a straight pipe of length (L/D) e, where . L. e. is the equivalent length and is the diameter of the pipe. Table 3.4 of your textbook . D shows (L/D) e. for different types ... How to Determine Equivalent Length Calculate the equivalent length of the liquid line for the following condensing unit with DX air-handling unit. The liquid line is composed of the following elements: • 30 ft (9.14 m) of 1-3/8 inch (35 mm) piping • 4 long radius elbows • 1 filter drier • 1 sight glass • 1 globe type isolating valve
Table A. Pipe Sizing Data Maximum deliver capacity of pipes of different diameters and lengths in cubic feet of gas per hour for an initial pressure of 2.0 PSI and a gas of .06 specific gravity. Total Equivalent Length of Pipe (feet) *Pipe Size of Schedule 40 Standard Pipe (inch) * 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 (2) equivalent Length in meters represent “total equivalent lengths” including valves and fittings. Refer to TABLE - 5 for estimations of “equivalent lengths’ of valves and fittings. (3) This chart is to assist the design engineer in selecting the appropriate diameter pipe to suit the duty and is not intended Friction loss data for the fittings is found on the pages of the catalog directly following the friction loss data for the pipe. These pages show the friction loss of the fittings in equivalent lengths of straight pipe. For example an 8” 90 deg. elbow SDR 17.6 shows an equivalent length of 14.0 ft. DIPRA has a Technical Publication to address virtually every aspect of the application of Ductile Iron Pipe. They are available in PDF format for immediate downloading. The following links organize the Technical Publication by topic. General
Equivalent Length of Valves and Fittings Calculation For pipes with a nominal diameter from 1/2" to 24 inches There is certain amount of pressure loss in straight pipe and in addition valves and fittings in a section of pipe will add to the overall pressure loss that occurs in a section of pipe. 4. May be of welded pipe, x-rayed and stress-relieved. 5. Other types, sizes and thicknesses of fittings on application. 6. Stocked in carbon steel and a variety of other metals and alloys. NPS Outlet CM HNPS Outlet CM H S Outlet P N C M H S Outlet P N C M H 0 2 3 2 --- ---24 22 21 24 30 20 22 20 24 18 9 22 1 1 / 2 24 16 22 19 24 14 22 19 24 6 ... To account for pressure loss through the fittings, next add 50 percent of the actual length of piping as an all-inclusive fitting allowance (210 feet x 1.50 = 315 feet). The final result is that all pipe sizes will be chosen from the 350-foot (106,680 mm) row of the table. Determined sizes are shown in Table 3.
WATER PIPING AND PUMPS Distribution Systems 1 Introduction In this TDP module we will cover major topics associated with chilled water piping, and to a limited extent, hot water piping. We will discuss the three types of piping systems and the four basic piping distribution designs used to supply and return water to HVAC hydronic equipment.
Friction Loss in Fittings Valves As an aid, liquid sizing constants (Cv values) are shown for valves. These values are defined as the flow rate through the valve required to produce a pressure drop of 1 psi. To determine the pres-sure drop for a given GPM the following formula may be used. ∆P = (G2)(SG)/Cv2 where: AP = pressure drop G= Flow ... Looking for steel pipe size charts? The ASME B36.10 and ASME B36.19 specifications cover the dimensions of seamless and welded steel pipes for high and low-temperature service, providing combinations of pipe outside and inside diameter (OD, ID), pipe thickness (WT, designated in “schedule”) and pipes theoretical weights (in pounds per foot and kilogram per meter). 10-10 Schematic diagram of a typical cross section of a ductile-iron pipe, 183 10-11a Annealed ductile-iron pipe before over-blasting, 184 10-11b Same ductile-iron pipe resulting in blisters and disbondment from over-blasting, 184 10-12 Typical risk model, 188 11-1 Unloading pipe with a forklift, 196 11-2 Unloading pipe with a crane, 197
Equivalent length of valves and fittings: Pressure drop for valves and fittings is accounted for as equivalent length of pipe. Typical values can be obtained from the following Table. Table 1-1: Equivalent lengths for various fittings. Fitting e L D 45O elbows 15 90O elbows, std radius 32
Engineering & Design Data FLOW VELOCITY & FRICTION LOSS Friction Loss Through Fittings Friction loss through fittings is expressed in equivalent feet of the same pipe size and schedule for the system flow rate. Schedule 40 head loss per 100' values are usually used for other wall thicknesses and standard iron pipe size O.D.’s. DUCT DESIGN, LEVEL 1: FUNDAMENTALS Distribution Systems 2 Space Availability The sizing criteria will often be defined by the space available to run the ductwork (Figure 1). Ceiling plenums, duct chases, and obstructions such as walls and beams often dictate that a cer-tain size duct be used, regardless of whether or not it is the best size from a Dimension l is the effective length of a fitting, which is added to the overall length of the ductwork system. Dimensions Rectangual r ducts and ftitni gs are fabrciated from metal sheets which are hemmed and seamed, pressure-welded, or riveted. The ducts and fittings are available in low- and medium-
Pipe Sizes For Water Distribution System Design D-5 Table D-3. Allowance for Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss (Valve and Threaded Fittings) Diameter of Fitting (in Inches) 90 Standard Elbow, Foot 45 Standard Elbow, Foot 90 Side T, Foot Coupling of Straight Run of T, Foot Gate Valve, Foot Globe Valve, Foot Angle Valve, Foot 3/8 1.0 0 ... 10-10 Schematic diagram of a typical cross section of a ductile-iron pipe, 183 10-11a Annealed ductile-iron pipe before over-blasting, 184 10-11b Same ductile-iron pipe resulting in blisters and disbondment from over-blasting, 184 10-12 Typical risk model, 188 11-1 Unloading pipe with a forklift, 196 11-2 Unloading pipe with a crane, 197 loss, add to the total line length, the equivalent length of the line of each valve or fitting. Equivalent Resistance of Valves and Fittings The pressure loss per foot of conduit, as found on the nomograph, when multiplied by the total line length (actual length and length added for the valves and fittings) will give the pressure loss of the EQ of valves and pipe fittings. No. B Clearway swing 50 A 90 deg. 50 C Globe, lift or step 340 B 45 deg. 26 D Angle, lift or step 145 E In line ball check valve 150 11 Single mitter bend A 45 deg. 15 5 Foot valve B 90 deg.
To account for pressure loss through the fittings, next add 50 percent of the actual length of piping as an all-inclusive fitting allowance (210 feet x 1.50 = 315 feet). The final result is that all pipe sizes will be chosen from the 350-foot (106,680 mm) row of the table. Determined sizes are shown in Table 3. C Step 7, Column 6: Select from Table F103B or F103C the equivalent lengths for the trial pipe size of fittings and valves on the section. Enter the sum for each section in Column 6. (The number of fittings to be used in the installation of this piping must be an estimate.) FLOOR 1 264 fu, C1 294 fu, 108 gpm 104.5 gpm 9 12 fu, 28.6 gpm F' '